# rus 2 Concurrent Systems An interprocess communication environment…

QuestionAnswered step-by-steprus 2 Concurrent Systems An interprocess communication environment…rus2 Concurrent SystemsAn interprocess communication environment is based on synchronous messagepassing. A server is to be designed to support a moderate number of simultaneousclient requests.Clients send a request message to the server, continue in parallel with serveroperation, then wait for the server’s reply message.Discuss the design of the server’s interaction with the clients. Include any problemsyou foresee and discuss alternative solutions to them. [20 marks]2CST.2001.4.3(a) Describe how mutual-exclusion locks provided by the synchronized keywordcan be used to control access to shared data structures. In particular youshould be clear about the behaviour of concurrent invocations of difffferentsynchronized methods on the same object, or of the same synchronized methodon difffferent objects. [6 marks](b) Consider the following class defifinition:class Example implements Runnable {public static Object o = new Object();int count = 0; complete andcpublic void run() {while (true) {synchronized (o) {count ++;}}}}Show how to start two threads, each executing this run method. [2 marks](c) When this program is executed, only one of the count fifields is found toincrement, even though threads are scheduled preemptively. Why might thisbe? [2 marks](d) Defifine a new class FairLock. Each instance should support two methods, lockand unlock, which acquire and release a mutual exclusion lock such that callsto unlock never block the caller, but will allow the longest-waiting blockedthread to acquire the lock. The lock should be recursive, meaning that thethread holding the lock may make multiple calls to lock without blocking.The lock is released only when a matched number of unlock operations havebeen made.You may wish to make use of the fact the Thread.currentThread() returnsthe instance of Thread that is currently executing. [10 marks]3[TURN OVERCST.2001.4.44 Compiler ConstructionConsider the following grammar giving the concrete syntax of a language:E ? idC ? E = E;C ? {B}C ? C repeatwhile EC ? if E then CC ? if E then C else CB ? B CB ? CS ? C eofwhere C repeatwhile E has the same meaning as do C while E in C or Java.(a) List the terminals and non-terminals of this grammar and explain thesignifificance of S. [3 marks](b) Identify any ambiguities in the above grammar and rewrite it to remove them,ensuring that your new grammar generates exactly the same set of strings.[4 marks](c) Specify a suitable abstract syntax, for example by giving a type declarationin a programming language of your choice, which might be used to hold parsetrees for this language. [3 marks](d) Give either a recursive descent parser or a characteristic fifinite state machine(e.g. for SLR(1)) with associated parser for your grammar. Your parser neednot return a parse treeit suffiffiffices for your parser either to accept or to rejectthe input string. [10 marks]4CST.2001.4.55 Data Structures and Algorithms(a) Outline how you would determine whether the next line segment turns left orright during the Graham scan phase of the standard method of computing theconvex hull of a set of points in a plane. [5 marks](b) Describe in detail an effiffifficient algorithm to determine how often the substringABRACADABRA occurs in a vector of 106 characters. Your algorithm should beas effiffifficient as possible. [10 marks](c) Roughly estimate how many character comparisons would be made when youralgorithm for part (b) is applied to a vector containing 106 characters uniformlydistributed from the 26 letters A to Z. [5 marks]6 ECAD(a) When designing clocked circuits there are times when asynchronous inputshave to be sampled which may result in metastable behaviour in state holdingelements. How might metastability be avoided when sampling asynchronousinputs? [5 marks](b) An optical shaft encoder (e.g. used on the internal rollers of a mechanicalmouse) consists of a disk with an evenly spaced alternating transparent andopaque grating around the circumference. Two optical sensors are positionedsuch that when one sensor is at the middle of an opaque region, the otheris at the edge. Consequently, the following Gray code sequence is produced,depending upon the direction of rotation:positive rotationnegative rotation timeA shaft decoder module is required to convert the Gray code into an 8-bitposition. The 8-bit position should be incremented every time the inputchanges from one state to another in a positive direction (e.g. from 00 to01, or from 10 to 00). Similarly, the 8-bit position should be decrementedevery time the input changes from one state to another in a negative direction(e.g. from 00 to 10, or from 01 to 00).Write d comment a Verilog module which performs the function of a shaftdecoder. [15 marks]5[TURN OVERCST.2001.4.67 Operating System Functions(a) In the context of virtual memory management:(i) What is demand paging? How is it implemented? [4 marks](ii) What is meant by temporal locality of reference? [2 marks](iii) How does the assumption of temporal locality of reference inflfluence pagereplacement decisions? Illustrate your answer by brieflfly describing anappropriate page replacement algorithm or algorithms. [3 marks](iv) What is meant by spatial locality of reference? [2 marks](v) In what ways does the assumption of spatial locality of reference inflfluencethe design of the virtual memory system? [3 marks](b) A student suggests that the virtual memory system should really deal with”objects” or “procedures” rather than with pages. Make arguments both forand against this suggestion. [4 and 2 marks respectively].6CST.2001.4.78 Computation Theory(a) Defifine precisely what is meant by the following:(i) f(x1, x2, . . . xn) is a Primitive Recursive (PR) function of arity n.[5 marks](ii) f(x1, x2, . . . xn) is a Total Recursive (TR) function of arity n. [3 marks](b) Ackermann’s function is defifined by the following recursive scheme:f(0, y) = S(y) = y + 1f(x + 1, 0) = f(x, 1)f(x + 1, y + 1) = f(x, f(x + 1, y))For fifixed n defifinegn(y) = f(n, y).Show that for all n, y ? N,gn+1(y) = gn(y+1)(1),where h(k)(z) is the result of k repeated applications of the function h to initialargument z. [4 marks](c) Hence or otherwise show that for all n ? N, gn(y) is a PR function. [4 marks](d) Deduce that Ackermann’s function f(x, y) is a TR function. [3 marks](e) Is Ackermann’s function PR? [1 mark]7[TURN OVERCST.2001.4.89 Numerical Analysis I(a) What is meant by a symmetric positive defifinite matrix ? [3 marks](b) Verify that A = 2 11 2 is positive defifinite. [4 marks](c) The Choleski factorisation A = LDLT is to be applied to the solution ofAx = b, where b = 11 . It is found thatL = 1121 , D = 232 .The next step in the method is to solve Ly = b to get y = 112. Form theupper triangular system of equations needed to complete the solution.[4 marks](d) Solve these equations. [2 marks](e) What is meant by the order of convergence of an iterative process? [1 mark](f ) State the Newton-Raphson formula for solving f(x) = 0 for scalar x. What isthe order of convergence of this method? [2 marks](g) This method is used to solve f(x) = x2 ? 4 = 0 using IEEE Double Precisionwith a certain starting value x0. It is found that the third iterate x3 ‘ 2.0006,and x4 ‘ 2.00000009. Very roughly, how many signifificant decimal digits ofaccuracy would you expect in x5? Explain your answer. [4 marks]8CST.2001.4.910 Computer Graphics and Image Processing(a) Describe an algorithm to draw a straight line using only integer arithmetic.You may assume that the line is in the fifirst octant, that the line starts andends at integer co-ordinates, and that the function setpixel(x, y) turns on thepixel at location (x, y). [8 marks](b) Describe Douglas and P¨ucker’s algorithm for removing superflfluous points froma line chain. [10 marks](c) Under what circumstances would it be sensible to employ Douglas and P¨ucker’salgorithm? [2 marks]The complex form of the Fourier series is:f(x) =complete and okay+?Xk=??ckei2?kxwhere ck is a complex number and ck = c??k.(a) Prove that the complex coeffiffifficient, ck, encodes the amplitude and phasecoeffiffifficients, Ak and ?k, in the alternative form:f(x) =+?Xk=0Ak cos(2?kx ? ?k)[10 marks](b) What is special about the case k = 0? [2 marks](c) Explain how the coeffiffifficients, ck, of the Fourier series of the periodic function,f(x):f(x) = f(x + T), ?xcan be obtained from the Fourier transform, FL(?), of the related function,fL(x):fL(x) = f(x), ?T2 6 x < T20,otherwise[8 marks]2 Concurrent SystemsAn interprocess communication environment is based on synchronous messagepassing. A server is to be designed to support a moderate number of simultaneousclient requests.Clients send a request message to the server, continue in parallel with serveroperation, then wait for the server's reply message.Discuss the design of the server's interaction with the clients. Include any problemsyou foresee and discuss alternative solutions to them. [20 marks]2CST.2001.4.33 Further Java(a) Describe how mutual-exclusion locks provided by the synchronized keywordcan be used to control access to shared data structures. In particular youshould be clear about the behaviour of concurrent invocations of difffferentsynchronized methods on the same object, or of the same synchronized methodon difffferent objects. [6 marks](b) Consider the following class defifinition:class Example implements Runnable {public static Object o = new Object();int count = 0;public void run() {while (true) {synchronized (o) {count ++;}}}}Show how to start two threads, each executing this run method. [2 marks](c) When this program is executed, only one of the count fifields is found toincrement, even though threads are scheduled preemptively. Why might thisbe? [2 marks](d) Defifine a new class FairLock. Each instance should support two methods, lockand unlock, which acquire and release a mutual exclusion lock such that callsto unlock never block the caller, but will allow the longest-waiting blockedthread to acquire the lock. The lock should be recursive, meaning that thethread holding the lock may make multiple calls to lock without blocking.The lock is released only when a matched number of unlock operations havebeen made.You may wish to make use of the fact the Thread.currentThread() returnsthe instance of Thread that is currently executing. [10 marks]3[TURN OVERCST.2001.4.44 Compiler ConstructionConsider the following grammar giving the concrete syntax of a language:E ? idC ? E = E;C ? {B}C ? C repeatwhile EC ? if E then CC ? if E then C else CB ? B CB ? CS ? C eofwhere C repeatwhile E has the same meaning as do C while E in C or Java.(a) List the terminals and non-terminals of this grammar and explain thesignifificance of S. [3 marks](b) Identify any ambiguities in the above grammar and rewrite it to remove them,ensuring that your new grammar generates exactly the same set of strings.[4 marks](c) Specify a suitable abstract syntax, for example by giving a type declarationin a programming language of your choice, which might be used to hold parsetrees for this language. [3 marks](d) Give either a recursive descent parser or a characteristic fifinite state machine(e.g. for SLR(1)) with associated parser for your grammar. Your parser neednot return a parse treeit suffiffiffices for your parser either to accept or to rejectthe input string. [10 marks]4CST.2001.4.55 Data Structures and Algorithms(a) Outline how you would determine whether the next line segment turns left orright during the Graham scan phase of the standard method of computing theconvex hull of a set of points in a plane. [5 marks](b) Describe in detail an effiffifficient algorithm to determine how often the substringABRACADABRA occurs in a vector of 106 characters. Your algorithm should beas effiffifficient as possible. [10 marks](c) Roughly estimate how many character comparisons would be made when youralgorithm for part (b) is applied to a vector containing 106 characters uniformlydistributed from the 26 letters A to Z. [5 marks]6 ECAD(a) When designing clocked circuits there are times when asynchronous inputshave to be sampled which may result in metastable behaviour in state holdingelements. How might metastability be avoided when sampling asynchronousinputs? [5 marks](b) An optical shaft encoder (e.g. used on the internal rollers of a mechanicalmouse) consists of a disk with an evenly spaced alternating transparent andopaque grating around the circumference. Two optical sensors are positionedsuch that when one sensor is at the middle of an opaque region, the otheris at the edge. Consequently, the following Gray code sequence is produced,depending upon the direction of rotation:positive rotationnegative rotation timeA shaft decoder module is required to convert the Gray code into an 8-bitposition. The 8-bit position should be incremented every time the inputchanges from one state to another in a positive direction (e.g. from 00 to01, or from 10 to 00). Similarly, the 8-bit position should be decrementedevery time the input changes from one state to another in a negative direction(e.g. from 00 to 10, or from 01 to 00).Write comment a Verilog module which performs the function of a shaftdecoder. [15 marks]5[TURN OVERCST.2001.4.67 Operating System Functions(a) In the context of virtual memory management:(i) What is demand paging? How is it implemented? [4 marks](ii) What is meant by temporal locality of reference? [2 marks](iii) How does the assumption of temporal locality of reference inflfluence pagereplacement decisions? Illustrate your answer by brieflfly describing anappropriate page replacement algorithm or algorithms. [3 marks](iv) What is meant by spatial locality of reference? [2 marks](v) In what ways does the assumption of spatial locality of reference inflfluencethe design of the virtual memory system? [3 marks](b) A student suggests that the virtual memory system should really deal with"objects" or "procedures" rather than with pages. Make arguments both forand against this suggestion. [4 and 2 marks respectively].6CST.2001.4.78 Computation Theory(a) Defifine precisely what is meant by the following:(i) f(x1, x2, . . . xn) is a Primitive Recursive (PR) function of arity n.[5 marks](ii) f(x1, x2, . . . xn) is a Total Recursive (TR) function of arity n. [3 marks](b) Ackermann's function is defifined by the following recursive scheme:f(0, y) = S(y) = y + 1f(x + 1, 0) = f(x, 1)f(x + 1, y + 1) = f(x, f(x + 1, y))For fifixed n defifinegn(y) = f(n, y).Show that for all n, y ? N,gn+1(y) = gn(y+1)(1),where h(k)(z) is the result of k repeated applications of the function h to initialargument z. [4 marks](c) Hence or otherwise show that for all n ? N, gn(y) is a PR function. [4 marks](d) Deduce that Ackermann's function f(x, y) is a TR function. [3 marks](e) Is Ackermann's function PR? [1 mark]7[TURN OVERCST.2001.4.89 Numerical Analysis I(a) What is meant by a symmetric positive defifinite matrix ? [3 marks](b) Verify that A = 2 11 2 is positive defifinite. [4 marks](c) The Choleski factorisation A = LDLT is to be applied to the solution ofAx = b, where b = 11 . It is found thatL = 1121 , D = 232 .The next step in the method is to solve Ly = b to get y = 112. Form theupper triangular system of equations needed to complete the solution.[4 marks](d) Solve these equations. [2 marks](e) What is meant by the order of convergence of an iterative process? [1 mark](f ) State the Newton-Raphson formula for solving f(x) = 0 for scalar x. What isthe order of convergence of this method? [2 marks](g) This method is used to solve f(x) = x2 ? 4 = 0 using IEEE Double Precisionwith a certain starting value x0. It is found that the third iterate x3 ' 2.0006,and x4 ' 2.00000009. Very roughly, how many signifificant decimal digits ofaccuracy would you expect in x5? Explain your answer. [4 marks]8CST.2001.4.910 Computer Graphics and Image Processing(a) Describe an algorithm to draw a straight line using only integer arithmetic.You may assume that the line is in the fifirst octant, that the line starts andends at integer co-ordinates, and that the function setpixel(x, y) turns on thepixel at location (x, y). [8 marks](b) Describe Douglas and P¨ucker's algorithm for removing superflfluous points froma line chain. [10 marks](c) Under what circumstances would it be sensible to employ Douglas and P¨ucker'salgorithm? [2 mar(a) State what is meant by a directed graph and a strongly connected component.Illustrate your description by giving an example of such a graph with 8 verticesand 12 edges that has three strongly connected components. [5 marks](b) Describe, in detail, an algorithm to perform a depth-fifirst search over such agraph. Your algorithm should attach the discovery and fifinishing times to eachvertex and leave a representation of the depth-fifirst spanning tree embeddedwithin the graph. [5 marks](c) Describe an O(n) algorithm to discover all the strongly connected componentsof a given directed graph and explain why it is correct. You may fifind it usefulto use the concept of the forefather ?(v) of a vertex v which is the vertex, u,with highest fifinishing time for which there exists a (possibly zero length) pathfrom v to u. [10 marks]2 Computer Design(a) What is a data cache and what properties of data access does it exploit?[5 marks](b) What is a direct mapped cache and under what conditions will it exhibit poorperformance? [5 marks](c) Under what circumstances might a word of data in main memory besimultaneously held in two separate fifirst-level cache lines? [5 marks](d) A translation look aside buffffer is a specialised cache. What does it typicallystore and why is it often a factor of 1000 smaller than a data cache? [5 marks]2CST.2001.6.33 Digital Communication I(a) Defifine the terms circuit and packet in the context of communication systems.[5 marks](b) What sort of guarantee does circuit switching provide? [5 marks](c) What advantages does packet switching provide over circuit switching?[5 marks](d) Which of frequency division multiplexing, time division multiplexing and codedivision multiplexing lend themselves to circuit switching? Which to packetswitching? Explain why or why not in each case. [5 marks]4 Computer Graphics and Image Processing(a) Describe the z-buffffer polygon scan conversion algorithm. [10 marks](b) In ray tracing, once we have determined where a ray strikes an object, theillumination at the intersection point can be calculated using the formula:I = Iaka +XiIikd(Li · N) +XiIiks(Ri · V)nExplain what real effffect each of the three terms is trying to model and explainwhat each of the following symbols means, within the context of this formula:I, Ia, i, Ii , ka, kd, ks,Li, N, Ri, V, n[10 marks]3[TURN OVERCST.2001.6.4SECTION B5 Comparative Programming Languages(a) Brieflfly explain the concept of coroutines as used in BCPL and outlinethe effffect of the library functions createco(f, size), deleteco(ctpr),callco(cptr, val) and cowait(val). [10 marks](b) Outline how you would design a coroutine to merge, in increasing order, twoinfifinite streams of increasing integers supplied by two other coroutines.[5 marks](c) Brieflfly outline how you would implement an analogous merging mechanism inan object-oriented language, such as Java, that does not provide a coroutinemechanism. [5 marks]6 Compiler Construction(a) Describe one possible structure (e.g. ELF) of an object fifile. Illustrate youranswer by considering the form of object fifile which might result from thefollowing C program.int a = 1, b = -1;extern int g(int);extern int c;int f() { return g(a-b) + c; }It is not necessary to consider the exact instruction sequence, just issuesconcerning its interaction with the object fifile format. [10 marks](b) Describe how a linker takes a sequence of such programs and produces anexecutable fifile. [4 marks](c) Compare and contrast static and dynamic linking in a system using your objectfifile format. [6 marks]4CST.2001.6.57 Prolog for Artifificial IntelligenceA weighted binary tree can be defifined using compound terms in the following way.A node of the tree is represented by the term n(V, L, R), where V stands for thevalue of the node, and L and R stand for the left and right branches, respectively.A terminal node has the R and L components instantiated to the null list.Given an input tree T, write a Prolog program that constructs a tree of the sameshape as T, but in which the value of each node has been set to the value of themaximum value node in T.[Note: Maximum marks are available only for programs that perform this task inone recursive descent of the input tree, and which use no more than four clauses.][20 marks]5[TURN OVERCST.2001.6.68 DatabasesThe environmental agency is setting up an SQL database to monitor long-termtrends in the climate. Data are collected from observatories of a number of difffferentkinds.Flood risk is of particular concern. Each water authority measures river levels andrates of flflow hourly at major points, and records reservoir levels daily.In addition, the agency maintains weather stations both inland and at sea. Theserecord precipitation (rainfall etc.), temperature, sunshine, air pressure and wind.Values of new precipitation, temperature, pressure, and wind speed and directionare taken hourly; gusts of over 60 m.p.h. are noted whenever they occur.Maximum and minimum temperature and pressure, the total number of hours ofsunshine and the total precipitation are recorded daily. Inland stations can begrouped by water authority.By default these primary data will be relegated to archive after 2 years. Selectedinformation is retained permanently in a data warehouse. This serves two purposes.First, it holds monthly summary data consisting of the maximum (and minimumas appropriate) day value for each statistic, together with the monthly totals ofsunshine and precipitation. The warehouse also keeps detailed information relatingto periods of extreme weather from the relevant observatories, with one or morekeywords describing the nature of the incident (flflood, blizzard, hurricane etc.) andan optional comment.Write notes to assist in the design of the schema for the relational data warehouse,including any diagrams that you fifind helpful. Explain how your design will enablemeteorologists to fifind relevant past records, noting any assumptions that you makeabout the nature of the data.[You should not go into unnecessary detail about the structure of the primarydatabase. You may assume that expert meteorologists will select the data for thewarehouse.][20 marks]6CST.2001.6.7SECTION C9 Semantics of Programming LanguagesWrite short notes on four of the following fifive topics.(a) The relationship between three forms of operational semantics of the Languageof Commands (LC) given by an evaluation relation h P, si ? hV, s0 i a transition relation h P, si ? hP0 , s0 i a transition relation between the confifigurationsh c, r, si of theSMC-machine(b) The notion of semantic equivalence of LC phrases and its congruence property.(c) Call-by-name and call-by-value rules for evaluating function applications in theLanguage of Functions and Procedures (LFP) and the relationship between theevaluation relations for LFP based upon each of them.(d) The notion of bisimilarity of two confifigurations in a labelled transition system.(e) The rules defifining the possible labelled transitions of parallel composition(P1|P2) and restriction (? c . P) in the Language of Communicating Processes(LCP).[5 marks each]7[TURN OVERCST.2001.6.810 Foundations of Functional ProgrammingThe following are some concepts that have flflourished in the context of functionalprogramming but which have (so far) been less heavily used in main-streamlanguages even when they have been available:(a) polymorphic types(b) type reconstruction(c) higher-order functions(d) lazy evaluation(e) continuationsFor each case give a brief explanation of the facility referred to, suggest acircumstance in which it might be useful and comment on how immediately relevantto non-functional languages it seems.[4 marks per part]8CST.2001.6.911 Logic and Proof(a) In the context of clause-based proof methods, defifine the notion of pure literaland describe what should be done if the set of clauses contains pure literals.[3 marks](b) Use the Davis-Putnam method to discover whether the following set of clausesis satisfifiable. If they are satisfifiable, show a satisfying interpretation.{P, R} {¬P, ¬R} {P, ¬Q} {¬Q, R} {¬P, Q, R}[6 marks](c) The three-fifingered inhabitants of the planet Triterra build base-3 computers.A Triterran named Randal Tryant has found a way of verifying base-3combinational logic. His Ordered Ternary Decision Diagrams (OTDDs) arethe same as a technology used on planet Earth except that all variables andexpressions range over the values 0, 1 and 2 instead of just 0 and 1.(i) Describe how a full ternary decision tree can be reduced to an OTDDwithout regard for effiffifficiency. [2 marks](ii) Sketch an effiffifficient algorithm to convert a ternary expression directly to anOTDD without constructing the full decision tree. For a typical ternaryconnective use modulo-3 multiplication, written as ?. [6 marks](iii) Demonstrate your algorithm by applying it to the ternary expression((i ? i) ? j) ? 2. [3 marks]9[TURN OVERCST.2001.6.1012 Complexity Theory(a) Show that any language that can be accepted by a nondeterministic machinein time f(n) can also be decided by a deterministic machine in space O(f(n)).[4 marks](b) Show that any language that can be accepted by a nondeterministic machinein space f(n) can also be decided by a deterministic machine in timeO(c(f(n)+log n) ), for some constant c. [6 marks](c) Explain what the above results tell us about the inclusion relationships amongthe complexity classes:NL, co-NL, P, NP, PSPACE and NPSPACE[4 marks](d) It has been proved that the graph reachability problem is in co-NL. Whatfurther inclusions can you derive among the above complexity classes usingthis fact? Explain your answer. [ Design a bank account class named Account that has the following private member variables: D accountNumber of type int D ownerName of type string O balance of type double transactionHistory of type pointer to Transaction structure (structure is defined below) number ransactions of type int totalNetDeposits of type static double. The total NetDeposits is the cumulative sum of all deposits (at account creation and at deposits) minus the cumulative sum of all withdrawals. O numberAccounts of type static int and the following public member functions: O Accountnumber, name, amount, month, day, year) is the constructor that initializes the account's member variables with number, name and amount. amount is the amount deposited when the account is created. The "account creation" transaction is recorded in the transaction history by calling record Transaction. number iransactions is set to 1, and amount is added to totalNetDeposits. numberACcounts is incremented. withdraw(amount, month, day, year) function to withdraw a specified amount from the account. The function should first check if there is sufficient balance in the account. If the balance is sufficient, withdrawal is processed. Otherwise the withdrawal is not made. If the withdrawal is made, the withdrawal amount is deducted from balance and from totalNetDeposits. The transaction is recorded in the transaction history, numberTransactions [6:16 AM, 4/9/2022] fridahkathambi71: For every one of the processors depicted beneath frame a potential microarchitecture. Incorporate a marked square chart that outlines the primary partsof the center pipeline and how they are interconnected. Individual pipelinestages ought to be displayed with a concise portrayal of their items.(A) A basic superscalar processor with a short pipeline. It can get andissue up to two guidelines for each cycle and directions are given inprogram request. [4 marks](B) An elite presentation superscalar processor that backings messed upexecution. It can bring and issue up to 6 guidelines for every cycle.It has a profound pipeline and expects to help a high clock recurrence.[6 marks](ii) practically speaking, the region of these sorts of processor might contrast by an element ofat least five. What adds to this huge distinction in region? [5 marks](b) An aberrant branch might have numerous objective locations related with it. Whyis this dangerous for a straightforward Branch Target Buffer (BTB) plan? [2 marks](c) If aberrant branches favor a specific branch target, and just rarelybranch to different targets, how should the plan of the BTB be advanced?[3 marks]3 (TURN OVER)CST2.2020.8.44 Computer Vision(a) Neural responsive fields utilized in beginning phases of vision can be viewed as straightintegro-differential administrators of the first-and second-orders, addressed by thelengthened ovals inside the chart underneath. Make sense of how they can be utilized forsituated edge location, and furthermore express the reason for a Fourier translation ofthem as anisotropic bandpass channels. Make sense of how consolidating their results bythe nonlinear activities portrayed in the remainder of this outline (amount of-squares,also, reaction proportion) can be utilized for more elevated level component recognition. [8 marks]2D GaborPhasor Modules(b) In self-driving vehicles, the accompanying abbreviations are names for robotized visionframeworks. Characterize them and momentarily depict how they work.(I) LIDAR [3 marks](ii) SLAM [3 marks](c) Discuss the utilization of surface angles as a profundity prompt in PC vision. How couldsurface angles be estimated? What earlier presumptions are expected to makecalculations about profundity and shape conceivable? You might find it supportive to alludeto the accompanying surface models. [6 marks]8a. Structure from surfaceI Most surfaces are covered with surface, of some sortI Texture is both a distinguishing element, and a prompt to surface shapeI If one can expect uniform measurements along the actual surface, thentextural foreshortening or extending uncovers 3D surface shapeI As suggested by its root, connecting it with (woven) materials, surface ischaracterized by the presence of factual connections across the pictureI From fields to materials, the binding together idea is semi periodicityI Variations from uniform periodicity uncover 3D shape, incline, distance(a) (I) One method for utilizing a solid hash work H to shape a message-verificationcode is the develop MacK(M) = H(KkM). What issue with thatapproach does the HMAC build settle? [4 marks](ii) Why does the HMAC build cushion the key? [2 marks](b) Your rival has begun utilizing HomeBrew, another square code C = EK(M)that they concocted a week ago. It utilizes a 96-piece key K = K1k . . . kK12, where eachof the 12 bytes Ki (1 ? I ? 12) is utilized as a 8-bit subkey in one of the 12 roundsthat apply a keyed stage f:R0 := Mfor I := 1 to 12Ri:= fKi(Ri?1)C := R12Portray an assault to observe K for this sort of square code that is useful for anfoe with a PC adequately quick to execute such a square code around2multiple times and that can store and query around 250 keys and messages.[6 marks](c) Your associate has proposed the accompanying advanced signature calculation. Let(G, q, g) be framework wide decisions of a cyclic gathering G of prime request q withgenerator g with the end goal that the discrete logarithm issue in G is computationallyinfeasible. Further let H : {0, 1} Computer ScienceEngineering & TechnologyC++ ProgrammingCOMPUTER S ICT 321Share Question